Spofforth was the main seat of the Percy family - one of the most important and influential families in northern England - until the late 14th century.William de Percy, a favourite of William the Conqueror, built a manor house here in the 11th century, and it was reputedly here that rebel barons drew up Magna Carta in 1215.
In Medieval art, the term "Romanesque architecture" describes the European style of building design which flourished during the late Medieval era (c.800-1200). The most important type of religious art produced during the Middle Ages, Romanesque design was influenced mainly by classical Roman architecture, as well as elements of Byzantine art, and Islamic art.An index to births registered throughout England & Wales.Provides a reference to order copies of birth certificates from the national registrar of births, marriages and deaths – the General Register Office. Romanesque Architecture in Brief History Background Church Versus State The Cluniac Order: A Force Behind Romanesque Civilization Eleventh Century: Highpoint of Romanesque Architecture Asceticism and Its Effects on Architecture Pilgrimages Classification of Romanesque Architecture The Pilgrimage Churches Churches With Domes Lost Splendours Architects or Masons? Benedictine Abbey Church, Charroux Romanesque Builders Abbey Church of Cluny Cathedral of Compostela An Architecture to Defend Against War and Calamity Organization of Space Independent Bays with Perfect or Imperfect Supports Architectural Decoration Historiated Capitals Decoration Reflects Secular Uncertainty and Religious Certainty Romanesque in England Romanesque in Germany Famous Romanesque Buildings Romanesque Revival (19th Century) Evolution of Architecture In a manner not unlike Ancient Egyptian architecture, Romanesque buildings were designed to express the protective strength of God in uncertain times.Rebuilt in stone in around AD 130, during the reign of Emperor Hadrian, it was then briefly abandoned as the frontier was moved north to the Antonine Wall, before being re-occupied upon return to Hadrian's Wall circa-AD 138. Following the Norman Conquest, the first castle was established at Kendal.William II granted the Barony of Kentdale - an area incorporating large swathes of land from Cumbria, Lancashire and Yorkshire - to Ivo de Taillebois who built an earth and timber motte-and-bailey castle (now known as Castle Howe) late in the eleventh century.Baroque architecture then returned attention to God.In fact the Papacy used Baroque architects as part of its Counter-Reformation propaganda campaign.The name Dunstanburgh – which translates as ‘the fort’ (burgh) ‘of the town’ (dun) ‘by the rock’ (stan) – was certainly in existence in the second decade of the 14th century, when the castle was first built.As at other places such as Edinburgh or Scarborough, it could suggest that occupation of the site began much earlier. During clearance works by the Ministry of Works in the 1920s and 1930s, shards of prehistoric and Roman pottery, Iron Age millstones, a Roman brooch and hearths of the 1st century BC and 2nd century AD were found on the site.